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Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) from the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite in Native Format

ERBE_TSI_ERBS_NAT data set contains Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) data from the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) in native format.The goal of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) is to produce monthly averages of longwave and shortwave radiation parameters on the Earth at regional to global scales. Preflight mission analysis lead to a three spacecraft system to provide the geographic and temporal sampling required to meet this goal. Three nearly identical sets of instruments were built and launched on three separate spacecraft. These instruments differ principally in the spacecraft interface electronics and in the field-of-view limiters for the nonscanner instruments required because of differences in the spacecraft orbit altitudes.The ERBS spacecraft was launched by Space Shuttle Challenger in October 1984 and was the first spacecraft to carry ERBE instruments into orbit. ERBS was designed and built by Ball Aerospace Systems under contract to NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), and ERBS was the first spacecraft dedicated to NASA science experiments to be launched by the Space Shuttle. ERBS carries the Stratospheric Aerosols and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) in addition to the ERBE instruments. The Payload Operation and Control Center (POCC) at GSFC directs operations of the ERBS spacecraft and the ERBE and SAGE II instruments, employing both ground stations and the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) network. Spacecraft and instrument telemetry data are received at GSFC where the data are processed by the Information Processing Division that provides ERBE and SAGE II experiment data to the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC).The second and third spacecraft launched with ERBE instruments are Television Infrared Radiometer Orbiting Satellite (TIROS) N-class spacecraft, which are part of the NOAA operational meteorological satellite series. The NOAA-9 and NOAA-10 spacecraft were launched in December 1984 and September 1986, respectively. The NOAA spacecraft include other instruments, such as the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and the High-Resolution Infrared Radiometer Sounder (HIRS), which provide NOAA with data for near-real-time weather forecasting. Both spacecraft are in nearly Sun-synchronous orbits. At launch equator-crossing times for the NOAA-9 and NOAA-10 orbits were 1420 UT (ascending) and 1930 UT (descending), respectively, where UT denotes universal time. The Satellite Operations and Control Center (SOCC) at the National Environmental Satellite and Data Information Service (NESDIS) operates the NOAA spacecraft. NOAA provides telemetry data and generates ERBE data for LaRC.From 1984 through 1994, total solar irradiance values were obtained from the solar monitor on the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) nonscanner.The individual total solar irradiance values represent orbital averages of the instantaneous measurements which are corrected for the angle between the instrument optical axis and the Sun and which are normalized to the mean Earth/Sun distance. At least once every 2 weeks, the Sun is observed by the monitor for several 64-second measurement intervals. Each interval is separated into two 32-second periods. During the first period, the Sun drifts across the9.2-degree unocculted field of view, and its radiation field is measured. During the second period, a low-emittance shutter, representative of a near-zero irradiance source, is cycled into the field of view, and the low irradiance from the back of the shutter is measured. The resulting measurements from the two different periods are used to define the irradiance, using the model that is described in Characteristics of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment Solar Monitors by R. B. Lee III, B. R. Barkstrom, and R. D. Cess. Typically, two to eight values of the irradiance are determined during an orbit. Considering that these irradiance values are derived typically during a single orbit for a few minutes, the averaged irradiance values represent an almost instantaneous level, and not a daily average.

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