CORONA_SATELLITE_PHOTOS_Not provided

CORONA Satellite Photographs from the U.S. Geological Survey

Version Not provided
  • Abstract
    The first generation of U.S. photo intelligence satellites collected more than 860,000 images of the Earth’s surface between 1960 and 1972. The classified military satellite systems code-named CORONA, ARGON, and LANYARD acquired photographic images from space and returned the film to Earth for processing and analysis. The images were originally used for reconnaissance and to produce maps for U.S. intelligence agencies. In 1992, an Environmental Task Force evaluated the application of early satellite data for environmental studies. Since the CORONA, ARGON, and LANYARD data were no longer critical to national security and could be of historical value for global change research, the images were declassified by Executive Order 12951 in 1995. The first successful CORONA mission was launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base in 1960. The satellite acquired photographs with a telescopic camera system and loaded the exposed film into recovery capsules. The capsules or buckets were de-orbited and retrieved by aircraft while the capsules parachuted to earth. The exposed film was developed and the images were analyzed for a range of military applications. The intelligence community used Keyhole (KH) designators to describe system characteristics and accomplishments. The CORONA systems were designated KH-1, KH-2, KH-3, KH-4, KH-4A, and KH-4B. The ARGON systems used the designator KH-5 and the LANYARD systems used KH-6. Mission numbers were a means for indexing the imagery and associated collateral data. A variety of camera systems were used with the satellites. Early systems (KH-1, KH-2, KH-3, and KH-6) carried a single panoramic camera or a single frame camera (KH-5). The later systems (KH-4, KH-4A, and KH-4B) carried two panoramic cameras with a separation angle of 30° with one camera looking forward and the other looking aft. The original film and technical mission-related documents are maintained by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). Duplicate film sources held in the USGS EROS Center archive are used to produce digital copies of the imagery. Mathematical calculations based on camera operation and satellite path were used to approximate image coordinates. Since the accuracy of the coordinates varies according to the precision of information used for the derivation, users should inspect the preview image to verify that the area of interest is contained in the selected frame. Users should also note that the images have not been georeferenced.
  • Purpose
    The CORONA Image collection was driven, in part, by the need to confirm purported developments in then-Soviet strategic missile capabilities. The images also were used to produce maps and charts for the Department of Defense and for other Federal Government mapping programs. The CORONA system provided a cost effective method to map the earth from space with stereo-optical images. CORONA demonstrated that the ability to adapt rapidly to a changing world is critical to the success of U.S. intelligence. This need to adapt grows even more acute as the pace of technological advancement increases. Data provided by CORONA offers beneficial information for environmentalists, scientists, scholars, and historians. Supplemental_Information: In addition to the images, documents and reports (collateral information) are available, pertaining to frame ephemeris data, orbital ephemeris data, and mission performance. Document availability varies by mission; documentation was not produced for unsuccessful missions. Corner coordinate data is a critical component of the index information. Accuracy in locating corner coordinates varies according to how coordinates were derived and according to the accuracy of information used for the derivation. As a general rule, metadata corner points have errors less than 10 miles from their actual ground positions for the CORONA and LANYARD systems, and less than 50 miles for the ARGON system. After a search of the metadata, the user should inspect the browse image and its immediate neighbors in the image series for the point of interest before placing an order for photography. For example, each CORONA image is about 10 miles wide and looking at three consecutive images in a series will compensate for 10 mile errors in cornerpoint locations. The Appendix Guidance on Metadata Accuracy gives insights into the accuracy of corner coordinate data used within the imagery index, and will aid the reader in using the index to select imagery frames of interest. Also, the use of browse imagery allows the user to review a reduced resolution image to determine whether or not a specific site is contained in the selected frame.

Data Identification Fields:

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    Processing Level

    Not provided

    Quality
    Collection Progress

    Complete

    Use Constraints
    There is no guarantee of warranty concerning the accuracy of these data. Users should be aware that temporal changes may have occurred since the data was collected and that some parts of these data may no longer represent actual surface conditions. Users should not use these data for critical applications without a full awareness of their limitations. Acknowledgement of the originating agencies would be appreciated in products derived from these data. Any user who modifies the data set is obligated to describe the types of modifications they perform. User specifically agrees not to misrepresent the data set, nor to imply that changes made were approved or endorsed by the U.S. Geological Survey. Please refer to http://www.usgs.gov/privacy.html for the USGS disclaimer.
    Access Constraints

    None

Related URLs
    Science Keywords
    • EARTH SCIENCE
    • SPECTRAL/ENGINEERING
    • INFRARED WAVELENGTHS
    • INFRARED IMAGERY
    • EARTH SCIENCE
    • SPECTRAL/ENGINEERING
    • VISIBLE WAVELENGTHS
    • VISIBLE IMAGERY
Other Descriptive Keywords
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Ancillary Keywords
  • SATELLITE
  • PHOTOGRAPHS
  • PANORAMIC CAMERA
  • IMAGERY
  • ENVIRONMENTAL
  • ARGON
  • CORONA
  • DECLASSIFIED
  • USGS/EROS
  • LANYARD
  • PHOTO-RECONNAISSANCE
  • PHOTOGRAPHY
  • USGS
  • CARTOGRAPHIC CAMERA
ISO Topic Categories
  • IMAGERY/BASE MAPS/EARTH COVER
Additional Attributes
  • metadata.uuid
    STRING
    Not provided
    Resolution Range Begin Range End Unit of Measure Accuracy

  • metadata.extraction_date
    STRING
    Not provided
    Resolution Range Begin Range End Unit of Measure Accuracy

  • metadata.keyword_version
    FLOAT
    Not provided
    Resolution Range Begin Range End Unit of Measure Accuracy

Acquisition Information Fields:

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Platforms
  • Not provided
    Instruments
    • Cameras
  • CORONA
    Instruments
  • ARGON
    Instruments
  • LANYARD
    Instruments
Projects
Project Short Name Campaigns Project Dates
CWIC No campaigns listed. No dates provided.

Temporal Information Fields:

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Spatial Information Fields:

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    Coverage Type Zone Identifier Geometry Granule Representation
    HORIZONTAL CARTESIAN NO_SPATIAL
Location Keywords
    • CONTINENT
    • ANTARCTICA
    • CONTINENT
    • ASIA
    • CONTINENT
    • EUROPE
    • GEOGRAPHIC REGION
    • GLOBAL
    • GEOGRAPHIC REGION
    • POLAR

Data Centers

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  • USGS/EROS
    ORIGINATOR

    This data center does not have any addresses listed.

    This data center does not have any contact mechanisms listed.

  • DOI/USGS/EROS
    Multiple Roles

    ARCHIVER

    DISTRIBUTOR

    Earth Resources Observation and Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Department of the Interior

    This data center does not have any addresses listed.

    This data center does not have any contact mechanisms listed.

Data Contacts

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  • Technical Contact
    EROS CENTER

    LTA Customer Services
    U.S. Geological Survey
    EROS Center
    Sioux Falls, SD 57198-0001

    • Email
    • 605-594-6589
    • 605-594-6151, 800-252-4547
  • LTA REPRESENTATIVE
    Metadata Author
    LTA REPRESENTATIVE USGS EROS CENTER

    LTA Customer Services
    U.S. Geological Survey
    EROS Center
    Sioux Falls, South Dakota 57198-0001

    • Email
    • 605-594-6589
    • 605-594-6151, 800-252-4547
  • Data Center Contact
    EROS CENTER

    DOI/USGS/EROS

    LTA Customer Services
    U.S. Geological Survey
    EROS Center
    Sioux Falls, SD 57198-0001

    • Email
    • 605-594-6589
    • 605-594-6151, 800-252-4547

Collection Citations Fields:

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    Collection Citations
    • CORONA Satellite Photographs

      Created by:

      Published by: U.S. Geological Survey

      Released: