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  • AVHRR data from Eurimage

    The National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has been operating its Advanced Tiros-N (ATN) series of satellites since October 1978. Carrying the Tiros Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS), a low-data-rate atmospheric sounding package, and the Advanced Very-High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), these satellites were designed primarily for meteorological applications, but the AVHRR instrument, in particular, has proved very valuable in a variety of environment linked earth observation applications, such as: drought early warning regional and global vegetation monitoring snow and ice mapping dynamic oceanography hydrology geology detection of forest fires, gas flares and agricultural burning fire fuel mapping volcanology air and sea pollution monitoring toxic algal bloom detection continental scale mapping (less than 1:3,000,000). Eurimage distributes AVHRR data from NOAA, acquired from the TIROS satellites and received mainly at ESA ground stations. Coverage of Europe, Africa, the Middle East and parts of the Far East is provided, as shown in the sketch map below. With at least two satellites operational at any one time, each with a daily repeat cycle, twice daily and twice nightly coverage is possible for any point on the equator and approximately double this number (8 passes in total) at mid-latitudes. TIROS / AVHRR Technical Summary Orbit Launch Altitude Inclination 1979 840 km 98.7=B0- 98.9=B0 Sensors band (=B5m) 1 2 3 4 5 AVHRR/1 .55-.90 .72-1.0 3.55-3.93 10.5-11.5 GSD (m) 1000 1000 1000 1000 AVHRR/2 .58-.68 .72-1.0 3.55-3.93 10.3-11.3 11.5-12.5 GSD (m) 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 Scene size (km) Revisit interval 3000 x 6000 2/day at equator, 4/day at mid-latitudes GSD (m) 120 TIROS / AVHRR Orbit The TIROS satellites have a circular, polar, sun-synchronous orbit, with an altitude of approximately 840 km and an inclination of 98.7=B0 to 98.9=B0. NOAA maintain at least two operational satellites in complementary orbits, with one crossing the equator at local solar times of approximately 0730 and 1930, and the other at 0230 and 1430. By convention, the even-numbered satellites cover the 'morning orbit' (0730) and the odd-numbered satellites the 'afternoon orbit' (1430). The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer is a four (AVHRR/1) or five (AVHRR/2) channel passive scanning radiometer. It has one visible channel, one near-infrared, one middle-infrared, and one/two far-infrared channels. The nominal ground resolution is about 1 km. The extra channel of the AVHRR/2 (Channel 5) affords improved atmospheric correction of sea and land surface temperatures.

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    Minimum Bounding Rectangle: -35 -15 90 90

    SCIOPS Short Name: EURIMAGE_AVHRR Version ID: Not provided Unique ID: C1214606060-SCIOPS

  • Radiometer and Electrostatic Probe Data from Tiros 7 spacecraft

    TIROS 7 (Television and Infrared Observation Satellite) was a meteorological spacecraft designed to test experimental television techniques and infrared equipment. It was equipped with two independent television camera subsystems for taking cloudcover pictures, plus an omnidirectional radiometer and a five-channel scanning radiometer for measuring radiation from the earth and its atmosphere.

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    Minimum Bounding Rectangle: -90 -180 90 180

    SCIOPS Short Name: TIROS7 Version ID: Not provided Unique ID: C1214584990-SCIOPS

  • TIROS-7 Medium-Resolution Scanning Radiometer Level 1 Final Meteorological Radiation Data V001 (TIROS7L1FMRT) at GES DISC

    TIROS-7 Medium-Resolution Scanning Radiometer Level 1 Final Meteorological Radiation Data (FMRT) product contains radiances expressed in five infrared/visible wavelength regions, expressed in either equivalent blackbody temperature (IR channels 1,2 and 4) or effective radiant emmitance (visible channels 3 and 5). The data will trace an elliptical, parabolic, or hyperbolic pattern on the ground due to the rotating of the instrument about the satellite spin axis. There is one orbit per file. The data were originally written on IBM 7094 machines, and these have been recovered from magnetic tapes, referred to as the Final Meteorological Radiation Tapes (FMRT). The data are archived in their original IBM 36-bit word proprietary format, also referred to as a binary TAP file. The TIROS-7 satellite was successfully launched on June 19, 1963. The Medium-Resolution Scanning Radiometer experiment successfully returned data for two years, continuing the measurements made by its predecessors flown on TIROS-2, -3 and -4. The instrument is a five channel radiometer with a 55 km footprint at nadir with the following characteristics: Channel 1: 14.8 to 15.5 microns - carbon dioxide absorption Channel 2: 8.0 to 12.0 microns - atmospheric window Channel 3: 0.2 to 6.0 microns - reflected solar radiation Channel 4: 8.0 to 30 microns - thermal radiation from the earth and atmosphere Channel 5: 0.55 to 0.75 microns - response to the TV system The Principal Investigator for these data was Joseph D. Barksdale from NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This product was previously available from the NSSDC with the identifier ESAD-00217 (old ID 63-024A-02A).

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    Minimum Bounding Rectangle: -74 -180 74 180

    GES_DISC Short Name: TIROS7L1FMRT Version ID: 001 Unique ID: C2020911863-GES_DISC