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Using the NASA EOSDIS Common Metadata Repository

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  • ABoVE: Annual Aboveground Biomass for Boreal Forests of ABoVE Core Domain, 1984-2014

    https://cmr.earthdata.nasa.gov/search/concepts/C2111720412-ORNL_CLOUD.xml
    Description:

    This dataset provides estimated annual aboveground biomass (AGB) density for live woody (tree and shrub) species and corresponding standard errors at a 30 m spatial resolution for the boreal forest biome portion of the Core Study Domain of NASA's Arctic-Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (ABoVE) Project (Alaska and Canada) over the time period 1984-2014. The data were derived from a time series of Landsat-5 and Landsat-7 surface reflectance imagery and full-waveform lidar returns from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) flown onboard IceSAT from 2004 to 2008. The Change Detection and Classification (CCDC) model-fitting algorithm was used to estimate the seasonal variability in surface reflectance, and AGB density data were produced by applying allometric equations to the GLAS lidar data. A Gradient Boosted Machines machine learning algorithm was used to predict annual AGB density across the study domain given the seasonal variability in surface reflectance and other predictors. The data received statistical smoothing to reduce noise and uncertainty was estimated at the pixel level. These data contribute to the characterization of how biomass stocks are responding to climate and disturbance in boreal forests.

    Links: Temporal Extent: Spatial Extent:
    Minimum Bounding Rectangle: 51.78 -165.41 69.73 -101.74

    ORNL_CLOUD Short Name: Annual_30m_AGB_1808 Version ID: 1 Unique ID: C2111720412-ORNL_CLOUD

  • Aboveground Biomass Change for Amazon Basin, Mexico, and Pantropical Belt, 2003-2016

    https://cmr.earthdata.nasa.gov/search/concepts/C2015954203-ORNL_DAAC.xml
    Description:

    This dataset provides gridded estimates of aboveground biomass (AGB) for live dry woody vegetation density in the form of both stock for the baseline year 2003 and annual change in stock from 2003 to 2016. Data are at a spatial resolution of approximately 500 m (463.31 m; 21.47 ha) for three geographies: the biogeographical limit of the Amazon Basin, the country of Mexico, and a Pantropical belt from 40 degrees North to 30 degrees South latitudes. Estimates were derived from a multi-step modeling approach that combined field measurements with co-located LiDAR data from NASA ICESat Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) to calibrate a machine-learning (ML) algorithm that generated spatially explicit annual estimates of AGB density. ML inputs included a suite of satellite and ancillary spatial predictor variables compiled as wall-to-wall raster mosaics, including MODIS products, WorldClim climate variables reflecting current (1960-1990) climatic conditions, and SoilGrids soil variables. The 14-year time series was analyzed at the grid cell (~500 m) level with a change point-fitting algorithm to quantify annual losses and gains in AGB. Estimates of AGB and change can be used to derive total losses, gains, and the net change in aboveground carbon density over the study period as well as annual estimates of carbon stock.

    Links: Temporal Extent: Spatial Extent:
    Minimum Bounding Rectangle: -30 -180 40 180

    ORNL_DAAC Short Name: AGB_Pantropics_Amazon_Mexico_1824 Version ID: 1 Unique ID: C2015954203-ORNL_DAAC

  • Antarctic 1 km Digital Elevation Model (DEM) from Combined ERS-1 Radar and ICESat Laser Satellite Altimetry, Version 1

    https://cmr.earthdata.nasa.gov/search/concepts/C1386250461-NSIDCV0.xml
    Description:

    This data set provides a 1 km resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of Antarctica. The DEM combines measurements from the European Remote Sensing Satellite-1 (ERS-1) Satellite Radar Altimeter (SRA) and the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) Geosciences Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). The ERS-1 data are from two long repeat cycles of 168 days initiated in March 1994, and the GLAS data are from 20 February 2003 through 21 March 2008. The data set is approximately 240 MB comprised of two gridded binary files and two Environment for Visualizing Images (ENVI) header files viewable using ENVI or other similar software packages. The data are available via FTP.

    Links: Temporal Extent: Spatial Extent:
    Minimum Bounding Rectangle: -86 -180 -60 180

    NSIDCV0 Short Name: NSIDC-0422 Version ID: 1 Unique ID: C1386250461-NSIDCV0

  • Antarctic Active Subglacial Lake Inventory from ICESat Altimetry, Version 1

    https://cmr.earthdata.nasa.gov/search/concepts/C1386250705-NSIDCV0.xml
    Description:

    This data set contains lake boundaries, volume changes, and gridded elevations for 124 active subglacial lakes beneath the Antarctic ice sheet. Lakes were identified using laser altimetry data obtained from 2003 to 2009 by NASA's Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) mission. The data are provided in Keyhole Markup Language (KML), comma-separated values (CSV), and GEOTiff formats, and are available via FTP.

    Links: Temporal Extent: Spatial Extent:
    Minimum Bounding Rectangle: -90 -180 -60 180

    NSIDCV0 Short Name: NSIDC-0523 Version ID: 1 Unique ID: C1386250705-NSIDCV0

  • Arctic Sea Ice Freeboard and Thickness, Version 1

    https://cmr.earthdata.nasa.gov/search/concepts/C1386250451-NSIDCV0.xml
    Description:

    This data set provides measurements of sea ice freeboard and sea ice thickness for the Arctic region. The data were derived from measurements made by from the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) instrument, the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I), and climatologies of snow and drift of ice.

    Links: Temporal Extent: Spatial Extent:
    Minimum Bounding Rectangle: 65 -180 86 180

    NSIDCV0 Short Name: NSIDC-0393 Version ID: 1 Unique ID: C1386250451-NSIDCV0

  • CDDIS_GNSS_satellite_data

    https://cmr.earthdata.nasa.gov/search/concepts/C1000000024-CDDIS.xml
    Description:

    Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data consists of the U.S. Global Positioning System (GPS) and the Russian GLObal NAvigation Satellite System (GLONASS) (plus other international systems) data sets. The Global Positioning System, developed by the U.S. Department of Defense, has been fully operational since 1994. GPS consists of a constellation of 24 satellites and three active spares each traveling in a 12 hour circular orbit, 20,200 kilometers above the Earth. The satellites are positioned so that six are observable nearly 100 percent of the time from any point on the Earth. The GLObal NAvigation Satellite System (GLONASS), managed and deployed by the Russian Federation, is similar to the U. S. Global Positioning System (GPS) in terms of the satellite constellation, orbits, and signal structure. GNSS receivers detect, decode, and process signals from the GNSS satellites. The satellites transmit the ranging codes on two radio-frequency carriers, allowing the locations of GNSS r

    Links: Temporal Extent: Spatial Extent:
    Minimum Bounding Rectangle: -90 -180 90 180

    CDDIS Short Name: CDDIS_GNSS_satellite_data Version ID: 1 Unique ID: C1000000024-CDDIS

  • Collaborative Research: Characteristics of Snow Megadunes and their Potential Effects on Ice Core Interpretation

    https://cmr.earthdata.nasa.gov/search/concepts/C1214621845-SCIOPS.xml
    Description:

    Field study and remote sensing measurements of an area of snow megadunes on the East Antarctic plateau provides a preliminary assessment of dune morphology, firn structure, and layering in the features. Snow megadunes are undulating variations in accumulation and surface texture, with wavelengths of 2 to 5 km and amplitudes up to 5 meters. The features cover 500,000 km2 of the East Antarctic plateau, occurring in areas of moderate regional slope and low accumulation on the flanks of the ice sheet between 2500 and 3800 meters elevation (Fahnestock et al., 2000). Our field area lies in the Byrd Glacier catchment region, near 80.78 degrees S, 124.5 degrees E, at an elevation of 2885 meters. Crest to crest separation near the field site averages 4.2 km. GPS topographic profiles show a 4 to 5 meter surface amplitude on a regional slope of about 0.001. This region contains some of the best examples of the megadune features that could be found in satellite mappings. Landsat images and aerial photography indicate the dunes consist of alternating surfaces of glaze and rough sastrugi with gradational boundaries. This pattern is oriented perpendicular to the mean wind direction, as modeled in katabatic wind studies (and partly confirmed by our brief observations). Glaze surfaces cover the leeward faces and troughs; rough sastrugi cover the windward faces and crests. The megadune pattern is crossed by smooth to eroded wind-parallel longitudinal dunes. Wind-eroded longitudinal dunes form spectacular 1-meter-high sastrugi in nearby areas. Dune structure at depth was profiled by ground-penetrating radar. The profile shows a sub-surface wave structure with amplitude of 5 to 8 m and a shift in the crest/trough pattern with depth consistent with upwind accretionary migration of the rough sastrugi patches. The layer pattern also indicates greatly reduced accumulation in glaze areas. The dune wave pattern is visible to the base of the profile, 40 meters below the surface. Given the very low accumulation rates for the area (1 to 4 cm at Vostok and nearby IGY-era snowpit studies), this thickness may represent the last few thousand years.

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    SCIOPS Short Name: scambos_0125570 Version ID: Not provided Unique ID: C1214621845-SCIOPS

  • Collaborative Research: Using Fracture Patterns and Ice Thickness to Study the History and Dynamics of Grounding Line Migration and Shutdown of Kamb and Whillans Ice Streams

    https://cmr.earthdata.nasa.gov/search/concepts/C1214591226-SCIOPS.xml
    Description:

    The work is in collaboration with co-PI Christina Hulbe and at Portland State University. In our previous work we were able to image, map, and interpret streak lines (flow trajectories) on the Ross Ice Shelf and demonstrate, using numerical simulations, that this pattern of flow-related features required significant changes in flow direction in the outflows of a number of ice streams on the Siple Coast of West Antarctica. In the present project, we have expanded the suite of features to include fracture patterns mapped from satellite imagery, expanded the modeling work to capture the impact of grounding and ungrounding of ice in the mouths of ice streams, and we have worked to constrain stop and start cycles recorded by the features out in the Ross Ice Shelf. A summary of results, starting with the abstract of the paper that is out in JGR Earth Surfaces (see publications record in this DIF): "Flow features on the surface of the Ross Ice Shelf, West Antarctica, record two episodes of ice stream stagnation and reactivation within the last 1000 years. We document these events using maps of streaklines emerging from individual ice streams made using visible band imagery, together with numerical models of ice shelf flow. Forward model experiments demonstrate that only a limited set of discharge scenarios could have produced the current streakline configuration. According to our analysis, Whillans Ice Stream ceased rapid flow about 850 calendar years ago and restarted about 400 years later and MacAyeal Ice Stream either stopped or slowed significantly between 800 and 700 years ago, restarting about 150 years later. Until now, ice-stream scenarios emphasized runaway retreat or stagnation on millennial time scales. Here, we identify a new scenario: century-scale stagnation and reactivation cycles, as well as lateral communication with adjacent ice streams through thickness changes on lightly grounded ice plains. This introduces uncertainty into predictions for future sea-level withdrawls by the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, which are based in part on recent slowing of Whillans Ice Stream and the stagnant condition of Kamb Ice Stream." This paper documents the evidence for delimiting the source regions (provenance) of ice now in the shelf; for bracketing the possible discharge scenarios that could have produced the patterns captured in the shelf, and shows that it is difficult to reproduce these patterns with a model without stopping and restarting individual streams. The modeling facilitated by Co-PI Hulbe’s system has allowed us to cover a range of possible scenarios, and in the process to learn about other aspects of the behavior of this system. The flow variability recorded in the ice shelf provides an important reference history against which current changes can be put in context. Some other findings (some of them in this paper, some from the last year of the project): Major, rapid, bi-directional translations of the grounding line have occurred, are common in the recent past, and are very likely to be going on now. This conclusion is required by the changes in flow and crevassing recorded in the ice shelf. It is a direct consequence of changing ice stream discharge across a low-slope grounding zone – small changes in ice thickness can produce large horizontal changes in grounding line location. Although there is limited knowledge of the cavity shape under the Ross Ice Shelf, the gently sloping floor downstream of the Siple Coast ice streams is fairly well constrained. Thickness variations out on the Ross Ice Shelf from ICESAT data (courtesy of Christopher Shuman) show strong gradients along and across flow that should decay rapidly over time; their presence suggests recent ungrounding in several areas. Early model work by MacAyeal on the thickness signatures to be expected on an ice shelf from an ice stream shutdown are large only local to the grounding line – and we in fact see a combination of thickness changes and flow provenance that reveals the impact of changes in the mouths of ice streams, but decays farther out on the shelf. Ice stream restarting is required by the lack of Whillans ice stream ice out in the ice shelf; this corresponds in estimated time with changes upstream of Engelhardt Ice Ridge (Scambos and Conway). The time available for restarting is significantly shorter than the millennium-length period required to substantially thicken the ice and change either the basal thermal gradient or basal shear stress, which has been the prevailing model of how streams may restart. This strongly points to more variable parts of the system as possible mechanisms – basal water being the most likely. Basal water movement is very common on Whillans, Bindschadler and MacAyeal ice streams based on time series of ICESat laser altimeter data, which show meters of vertical elevation change over multiple months for a series of lakes (Fricker et al). This type of water flow could restart a stopped stream, if it could be effective in the right places. The implications of this for possible field measurements that would document the process will require more work. The complex layers of dirty and clean ice seen at the base of the Caltech borehole on Kamb ice stream may reflect intermittent freeze-on and restarting of flow in this area. The seemingly disparate conclusions of the work of Catania et al, and Catania and Hulbe, from surface-based radar profiling of the past margins and floating regions in the lower reaches of Kamb ice stream, and Anandakrishnan, Bindschadler, and more recently Weins about the twice-daily episodic stick-slip motion on the ice plain of Whillans ice stream can be connected based on an analysis of the detailed topography of these regions. Many of the conclusions of Catania et al about the recent history of the ice at the mouth of Kamb ice stream are borne out by this comparison, though relating the features produced by basal melting at the edges of Siple Dome and Engelhardt ice rise to old grounding lines is problematic given the amount of vertical relief along the length of these features today. The nucleation points of the slip events, centered around Ice Raft A in the ice plain of Whillans ice stream is characterized by local rises which can reach 10+ meters but are features only a kilometer across. These are likely produced when ice flows across a bed feature that inhibits sliding. On longer time scales, this detailed topography provides a quantitative picture of the flow variations that are also shown in the modeling of ice stream start/stop behavior and grounding line migration by Hulbe at Portland State University; further analysis of the combination of these data should yield additional insight.

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    Minimum Bounding Rectangle: -86 -180 -70 -130

    SCIOPS Short Name: fahnestock_0440636 Version ID: 1 Unique ID: C1214591226-SCIOPS

  • GLAS Validation on the Amery Ice Shelf

    https://cmr.earthdata.nasa.gov/search/concepts/C1214305782-AU_AADC.xml
    Description:

    Metadata record for data from ASAC Project 1263 See the link below for public details on this project. ---- Public Summary from Project ---- The project will involve making a series of measurements of the ice-sheet topography using GPS static and kinematic procedures so that they can be used to calibrate/validate measurements made from the new generation of satellite geoscience laser altimeter systems (GLAS). The measurements of the ice sheet topography will be made near-simultaneously (within 8-16 days) from both GPS and laser systems (and possibly also from an aircraft laser altimeter) and used to assess the error budgets of the GLAS satellite. The overall goal of the project is to determine the seasonal and interannual variation in surface elevation of the Antarctic ice sheet. This information is essential for predicting future changes in ice volume and sea-level. See the documentation provided in the dataset for more information.

    Links: Temporal Extent: Spatial Extent:
    Minimum Bounding Rectangle: -71.22559 68.55346 -69.05807 73.20463

    AU_AADC Short Name: ASAC_1263 Version ID: 1 Unique ID: C1214305782-AU_AADC

  • GLAS/ICESat 1 km Laser Altimetry Digital Elevation Model of Greenland, Version 1

    https://cmr.earthdata.nasa.gov/search/concepts/C1386204224-NSIDCV0.xml
    Description:

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) instrument on the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) provides global measurements of elevation, and repeats measurements along nearly-identical tracks; its primary mission is to measure changes in ice volume (mass balance) over time. This digital elevation model (DEM) of Greenland is derived from GLAS/ICESat laser altimetry profile data and provides new surface elevation grids of the ice sheets and coastal areas, with greater latitudinal extent and fewer slope-related effects than radar altimetry. This DEM is generated from the first seven operational periods (from February 2003 through June 2005) of the GLAS instrument. It is provided on polar stereographic grids at 1 km grid spacing. The grid covers all of Greenland south of 83° N. Elevations are reported as centimeters above the datums, relative to both the WGS 84 ellipsoid and the EGM96 geoid, in two separate elevation data files. A data quality map of the interpolation distance is distributed in addition to the elevation data. ENVI header files are also provided. The data are in 4-byte (long) signed integer binary files (big endian byte order) and are available via FTP.

    Links: Temporal Extent: Spatial Extent:
    Minimum Bounding Rectangle: 60 -73 83 -11

    NSIDCV0 Short Name: NSIDC-0305 Version ID: 1 Unique ID: C1386204224-NSIDCV0